Caucho maker of Resin Server | Application Server (Java EE Certified) and Web Server


 

Resin Documentation

home company blog wiki docs 
app server web server 
health cloud java ee pro 
 Resin Server | Application Server (Java EE Certified) and Web Server
 

resin security


  1. Quick Start
  2. Management
  3. Authentication
    1. properties: - properties authentication
    2. xml: - xml authentication
    3. custom authentication
    4. Quick Start
    5. login-config
    6. auth-method
    7. form-login-config
    8. authenticator
    9. XmlAuthenticator
    10. JdbcAuthenticator
    11. LdapAuthenticator
      1. jndi-env
    12. JaasAuthenticator
      1. isUserInRole
      2. init-param
      3. Custom LoginModule
    13. AuthenticationList
  4. Digest passwords
    1. Digest protects passwords
    2. MD5 digest
    3. Calculating a digest
    4. Using Digest with basic authentication or a form login
    5. Using HTTP digest authentication
    6. Disabling the use of password-digest
    7. Compatibility
  5. Single Signon
    1. Single signon for virtual hosts
  6. Custom Login
  7. Security Constraints
    1. security-constraint
    2. web-resource-collection
    3. auth-constraint
    4. ip-constraint
    5. user-data-constraint
    6. transport-guarantee
    7. constraint
  8. Custom Security Constraints
  9. Protecting static files from viewing by anyone
    1. Place files in WEB-INF
    2. Security constraint requiring role nobody
    3. A servlet that returns a 403 error
  10. What SSL provides
    1. Encryption
    2. Server Authentication
  11. OpenSSL
    1. Linking to the OpenSSL Libraries on Unix
    2. Obtaining the OpenSSL Libraries on Windows
    3. Preparing to use OpenSSL for making keys
    4. Creating a private key
    5. Creating a certificate
      1. Creating a self-signed certificate
      2. Creating a certificate request
    6. resin.conf - Configuring Resin to use your private key and certificate
    7. Testing
      1. Testing with the browser
      2. Using openssl to test the server
    8. Certificate Chains
      1. Example certificate chain for Instant SSL
  12. JSSE
    1. Install JSSE from Sun
    2. Create a test server certificate
    3. resin.conf
    4. Testing JSSE
    5. User Experiences with JSSE
      1. How do I configure Resin with SSL using JSSE?
        1. Requirements
        2. JSSE setup
        3. Keystore initialization
        4. Keystore protection
        5. Private key generation
        6. Public Key Certificate (optional)
        7. Key pair verification
        8. Resin configuration (resin.conf)
        9. Test !
  13. Security Manager
    1. java.policy
    2. java.policy syntax

Quick Start

The following sample shows how to protect a section of a web-site with a password, using a login form.

WEB-INF/resin-web.xml - Simple Password Protection
<web-app xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin">

  <security-constraint url-pattern="/secure/*">
    <auth-constraint role-name="*"/>

    <login uri="form:login-page=/login.jsp"/>
  </security-constraint>

  <authenticator uri="properties:password-digest=none">
     <init>
       harry=quidditch,user
     </init>
  </authenticator>

</web-app>
  • <security-constraint> protects a section of the web-app, i.e. providing an authorization context.
  • <url-pattern> matches the URLs to be protected
  • <auth-constraint> protects the web-app through login (as opposed to by IP address or by SSL)
  • <login> specifies the login method
  • <authenticator> defines the login users and passwords. The "properties:" authenticator specifies a simple .properties file user definition.
  • password-digest=none disables the default MD5-digest for the passwords. Only recommended for examples.

Management

Since all Resin users will want to protect the /resin-admin pages with an administration password, and protect any clustered management and deployment, Resin's top-level <management> tag includes a static, XML-based authentication context. The authenticator is automatically shared for all hosts and web-apps, so simple sites can even use this authenticator configuration for their site-wide authentication.

resin.conf
<resin xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin">

  <management">
     <user name="admin" password="MD5HASH=="/>

     ...
  </management>

  ...

</resin>

The password is a hash of the user name, password, and the "resin" realm. The /resin-admin page includes a form to easily generate the MD5 hash. You can also use the PasswordDigest class to generate the digest programmatically.

Authentication

Resin provides a basic set of authenticators covering the most common cases. Applications which need custom authenticators can easily write their own extensions, described below.

properties: - properties authentication

WEB-INF/resin-web.xml - inline properties
<web-app xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin">

  <authenticator uri="properties:password-digest=none">
     <init>
       harry=quidditch,user,admin
       draco=mudblood,disabled,user
     </init>
  </authenticator>

</web-app>
WEB-INF/resin-web.xml - file property
<web-app xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin">

  <authenticator uri="properties:path=WEB-INF/users.properties"/>

</web-app>
WEB-INF/users.properties
harry=MD5HASH==,user,admin

xml: - xml authentication

WEB-INF/resin-web.xml - inline xml
<web-app xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin">

  <authenticator uri="properties:password-digest=none">
     <init>
       <user name="harry" password="quidditch"/>
     </init>
  </authenticator>

</web-app>
WEB-INF/resin-web.xml - file xml
<web-app xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin">

  <authenticator uri="properties:path=WEB-INF/users.xml"/>

</web-app>
WEB-INF/users.xml
<users>
  <user name="harry password="MD5HASH==" roles="user,admin"/>
<users>

custom authentication

WEB-INF/resin-web.xml - custom
<web-app xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin">

  <authenticator class="com.foo.MyAuthenticator">
    <init>
      <foo>bar</foo>
    </init>
  </authenticator>

</web-app>
MyAuthenticator.java
package com.foo;

import com.caucho.server.security;

public class MyAuthenticator extends AbstractPasswordAuthenticator {
  private PasswordUser _user;

  public MyAuthenticator()
  {
    _user = new PasswordUser("harry", "quidditch",
                             new String[] { "user" });
  }
192
  public PasswordUser getUser(String userName)
  {
    if (userName.equals(_user.getName()))
      return _user;
    else
      return null;
  }
}

It's also possible to register your custom authenticatr with Resin's uri-based configuration. You'll add a file in the META-INF/services/com.caucho.config.uri named com.caucho.server.security.ServletAuthenticator in the .jar file with the following contents:

com.caucho.server.security.ServletAuthenticator
foo.my=com.foo.MyAuthenticator

Quick Start

The easiest authenticator to understand is the XmlAuthenticator. It lets you put users and passwords directly in the configuration file. The following example uses "Basic" authentication for login. Basic authentication asks the browser to pop open a window prompting for a username and password. (Basic authentication is discouraged because it is not secure unless you use it with SSL, but it's the easiest example.) The only user defined here is "Harry Potter" and he has the password "quidditch". He also plays the "user" role.

Using the XmlAuthenticator
<web-app xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin">

  ...

  <authenticator type="com.caucho.server.security.XmlAuthenticator">
    <init>
      <user>Harry Potter:quidditch:user</user>
      <password-digest>none</password-digest>
    </init>
  </authenticator>

  <login-config auth-method="basic"/>

  <security-constraint url-pattern="/users-only/*" role-name="user"/>

  ...

</web-app>

In the above example, the <security-constraint> checks for authorization. Only users playing the "user" role can access the /users-only directory.

Another often used authenticator is the JdbcAuthenticator, which uses usernames, passwords, and roles stored in a database.

<web-app xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin">

  ...

  <!-- Resin-specific JdbcAuthenticator -->
  <authenticator type='com.caucho.server.security.JdbcAuthenticator'>
    <init>
      <data-source>test</data-source>
      <password-query>
        SELECT password FROM LOGIN WHERE username=?
      </password-query>
      <cookie-auth-query>
        SELECT username FROM LOGIN WHERE cookie=?
      </cookie-auth-query>
      <cookie-auth-update>
        UPDATE LOGIN SET cookie=? WHERE username=?
      </cookie-auth-update>
      <role-query>
        SELECT role FROM LOGIN WHERE username=?
      </role-query>
    </init>
  </authenticator>

  <login-config auth-method='basic'/>

  <security-constraint url-pattern='/users-only/*' role-name='user'/>

  ...

</web-app>

login-config

Configures the login class. The web.xml configuration describes the configuration in more detail.

The login can be customized by selecting the com.caucho.server.security.AbstractLogin. The type attribute will select that class. More sophisticated applications may want to add their own custom AbstractLogin class to replace the predefined values.

Typically a custom login would only be necessary if the application needed a custom way of extracting credentials from the request.

auth-method

Selects the authentication method.

auth-method values
AUTH-METHODMEANING
basicHTTP Basic authentication
digestHTTP Digest authentication
formForm-based authentication

form-login-config

Configures authentication for forms. The login form has specific parameters that the servlet engine's login form processing understands. If the login succeeds, the user will see the original page. If it fails, she will see the error page.

form-login-pageThe page to be used to prompt the user loginnone
form-error-pageThe error page for unsuccessful loginnone
internal-forwardUse an internal redirect on success or a sendRedirectfalse
form-uri-priorityIf true, the form's j_uri will override a stored URIfalse

The form itself must have the action j_security_check. It must also have the parameters j_username and j_password. Optionally, it can also have j_uri and j_use_cookie_auth. j_uri gives the next page to display when login succeeds. j_use_cookie_auth allows Resin to send a persistent cookie to the user to make following login easier.

j_use_cookie_auth gives control to the user whether to generate a persistent cookie. It lets you implement the "remember me" button. By default, the authentication only lasts for a single session.

j_security_check Parameters
PARAMETERMEANING)
j_usernameThe user name
j_passwordThe password
j_uriResin extension for the successful display page (Optional).
j_use_cookie_authResin extension to allow cookie login (Optional).

The following is an example of a servlet-standard login page:

<form action='j_security_check' method='POST'>
<table>
<tr><td>User:<td><input name='j_username'>
<tr><td>Password:<td><input name='j_password'>
<tr><td colspan=2>hint: the password is 'quidditch'
<tr><td><input type=submit>
</table>
</form>

authenticator

Specifies a class to authenticate users. This Resin-specific option lets you control your authentication. You can either create your own custom authenticator, or use Resin's JdbcAuthenticator.

The authenticator is responsible for taking the username and password and returning a UserPrincipal if the username and password match.

Users wanting to implement an authenticator should look at the JavaDoc for and . To protect your application from API changes, you should extend AbstractAuthenticator rather than implementing Authenticator directly.

XmlAuthenticator

The XmlAuthenticator (com.caucho.serer.security.XmlAuthenticator), stores the authentication in either an xml file or in the configuration itself.

When configuring the XmlAuthenticator in the resin.conf (or web.xml), each user adds a new configured user. The value contains the username, password, and the roles the user plays.

XmlAuthenticator in resin.conf
<authenticator type="com.caucho.server.security.XmlAuthenticator">
  <init>
    <user>Harry Potter:quidditch:user,gryffindor</user>
    <user>Draco Malfoy:pureblood:user,slytherin</user>
    <password-digest>none</password-digest>
  </init>
</authenticator>

Because the plain text passwords in the example above are a serious security issue, most sites will use the password-digest attribute described below to protect the passwords.

ATTRIBUTEMEANINGDEFAULT
userspecifies an allowed user. May be repeated.none
password-digestselects the signature method to protect the passwordmd5-base64
pathspecifies a path to an XML file containing the users and passwords.none
logout-on-session-timeoutIf true, the user will be logged out when the session times outtrue

The passwords can be specified in a separate *.xml file. The password file looks like:

password.xml
<authenticator>
  <user name='Harry Potter' password='quidditch' roles='gryffindor'/>
  <user name='Draco Malfoy' password='pureblood' roles='slytherin'/>
</authenticator>

Sites should use password-digest to protect the passwords.

JdbcAuthenticator

The JdbcAuthenticator () asks a backend database for the password matching the user's name. It uses the DataSource specified by the pool-name option, or the JNDI java:comp/env/jdbc/db-pool by default. pool-name refers to a DataSource configured with database.

The following are the attributes for the JdbcAuthenticator:

ATTRIBUTEMEANINGDEFAULT
data-sourceThe database pool. Looks in the application attributes first, then in the global database pools.none
password-queryA SQL query to get the user's password. The default query is given below.see below
cookie-auth-queryA SQL query to authenticate the user by a persistent cookie.none
cookie-auth-updateA SQL update to match a persistent cookie to a user.none
role-queryA SQL query to determine the user's role. By default, all users are in role "user", but no others.none
password-digestSpecifies the digest algorithm and format (Resin 2.0.4)md5-base64
logout-on-session-timeoutIf true, the user will be logged out when the session times out (Resin 2.0.6)true
<web-app xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin">

  ...

  <!-- Resin-specific JdbcAuthenticator -->
  <authenticator type='com.caucho.server.security.JdbcAuthenticator'>
    <init>
      <data-source>test</data-source>
      <password-query>
        SELECT password FROM LOGIN WHERE username=?
      </password-query>
      <cookie-auth-query>
        SELECT username FROM LOGIN WHERE cookie=?
      </cookie-auth-query>
      <cookie-auth-update>
        UPDATE LOGIN SET cookie=? WHERE username=?
      </cookie-auth-update>
      <role-query>
        SELECT role FROM LOGIN WHERE username=?
      </role-query>
    </init>
  </authenticator>

  <login-config auth-method='basic'/>

  <security-constraint url-pattern='/users-only/*' role-name='user'/>

  ...

</web-app>

LdapAuthenticator

The LdapAuthenticator () uses jndi to contact an LDAP (or Active Directory) server for authentication purposes.

ATTRIBUTEMEANINGDEFAULT
dn-prefixstring to prepend to query before portion selecting user by namenone
dn-suffixstring to append to query after portion selecting user by namenone
jndi-envAdd a property to the jndi provider used for connecting to the ldap serversee below
logout-on-session-timeoutIf true, the user will be logged out when the session times outtrue
password-digestselects the signature method to protect the passwordmd5-base64
user-attributethe attribute name to use in the query for matching the useruid
password-attributethe attribute name to use for obtaining the passworduserPassword
urlthe url for the server (since Resin 3.1.1)ldap://localhost:389
<web-app xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin">

  ...

  <authenticator>
    <type>com.caucho.server.security.LdapAuthenticator</type>
    <init>
      <url>ldap://localhost:389</url>
      <dn-suffix>dc=hogwarts,dc=com</dn-suffix>
      <password-digest>none</password-digest>
    </init>
  </authenticator>

  ...

</web-app>

jndi-env

jndi-env configures properties of the ldap provider implementation. Prior to 3.1.1, the url of the server is specified with jndi-env and the java.naming.provider.url property.

LdapAuthenticator jndi-env
  <authenticator>
    <type>com.caucho.server.security.LdapAuthenticator</type>
    <init>
      <jndi-env java.naming.factory.initial="com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory"/>
      <jndi-env java.naming.provider.url="ldap://localhost:389"/>

      <dn-suffix>dc=hogwarts,dc=com</dn-suffix>
      <password-digest>none</password-digest>
    </init>
  </authenticator>

JaasAuthenticator

The JaasAuthenticator () uses a JAAS LoginModule for authentication. The JaasAuthenticator is an adapter that provides the ability to use the large number of JAAS LoginModule's included in the JDK for authentication purposes.

ATTRIBUTEMEANINGDEFAULT
init-paramAdd a property to the LoginModulenone
login-moduleThe fully qualified class name of the LoginModule implementationrequired
logout-on-session-timeoutIf true, the user will be logged out when the session times outtrue
password-digestselects the signature method to protect the passwordmd5-base64
JaasAuthenticator configuration
<web-app xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin">

  <authenticator type="com.caucho.server.security.JaasAuthenticator">
    <init>
      <login-module>com.sun.security.auth.module.Krb5LoginModule</login-module>
      <init-param>
        <debug>true</debug>
      </init-param>
    </init>
  </authenticator>

</web-app>

isUserInRole

The isUserInRole method is supported if the LoginModule provides either an isUserInRole method in the Principal returned by the LoginModule, or a getRoles() method returning a java.util.Set. (Since 3.0.19).

init-param

<init-param> directives are used to configure the properties of the LoginModule. Existing LoginModules provide documentation of the init-param that are accepted. Custom LoginModule implementations retrieve the init-param values in the initialize method.

Custom LoginModule

Custom LoginModule - java code
import java.util.*;

import javax.security.auth.*;
import javax.security.auth.spi.*;
import javax.security.auth.callback.*;
import javax.security.auth.login.*;

public class TestLoginModule implements javax.security.auth.spi.LoginModule {
  private Subject _subject;
  private CallbackHandler _handler;
  private Map _state;
 
  private String _userName;
  private String _password;

  public void initialize(Subject subject,
                         CallbackHandler handler,
                         Map sharedState,
                         Map options)
   {
     _subject = subject;
     _handler = handler;
     _state = sharedState;

     _userName = (String) _options.get("user");
     _password = (String) _options.get("password");
   }

   public boolean login()
     throws LoginException
   {
     NameCallback name = new NameCallback("");
     PasswordCallback password = new PasswordCallback("", false);
 
     _handler.handle(new Callback[] { name, password });

     if (_userName.equals(name.getName()) && 
         _password.equals(password.getPassword()) {
         _subject.getPrincipals().add(new TestPrincipal(_userName));
       return true;
     }
     else
       return false;
   }

   public boolean abort()
   {
     return true;
   }

   public boolean commit()
   {
     return _subject.getPrincipals().size() > 0;
   }

   public boolean logout()
   {
      return true;
   }
}
Custom LoginModule - resin-web.xml configuration
<web-app xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin">

  <authenticator type="com.caucho.server.security.JaasAuthenticator">
    <init>
      <login-module>example.TestModule</login-module>
      <init-param>
        <user>Harry</user>
        <password>quidditch</password>
      </init-param>
    </init>
  </authenticator>
</web-app>

AuthenticationList

AuthenticatorList () is used to configure more than one authenticator in a list, each authenticator is tried in turn and if the authentication fails the next authenticator in the list is attempted.

  <authenticator type="com.caucho.server.security.AuthenticatorList">
    <init>
      <authenticator resin:type="com.caucho.server.security.XmlAuthenticator">
        <user>admin:NIHlOSafJN2H7emQCkOQ2w==:user,admin</user>
      </authenticator>

      <authenticator resin:type='com.caucho.server.security.JdbcAuthenticator'>
        <data-source>jdbc/users</data-source>
        <password-query>
          SELECT password FROM LOGIN WHERE username=?
        </password-query>
        <cookie-auth-query>
          SELECT username FROM LOGIN WHERE cookie=?
        </cookie-auth-query>
        <cookie-auth-update>
          UPDATE LOGIN SET cookie=? WHERE username=?
        </cookie-auth-update>
        <role-query>
          SELECT role FROM LOGIN WHERE username=?
        </role-query>
      </authenticator>
    </init>
  </authenticator>

  <login-config auth-method='basic'/>

  <security-constraint url-pattern='/users/*' role-name='user'/>
  <security-constraint url-pattern='/admin/*' role-name='admin'/>

Digest passwords

Digest protects passwords

Digest passwords enable an application to avoid storing and even transmitting the password in a form that someone can read.

A digest of a cleartext password is calculated when it is passed through a one-way function that consistently produces another series of characters, digestPassword = digester(username + ":" + realm + ":" cleartextPassword). The function is "one-way" because the digestPassword cannot be used to reverse-engineer the original password.

Digest passwords can be used in two places: storage and transmission. Digest passwords in storage means that the password is stored in a digested form, for example in a database or in a file. Digest passwords in transmission means that the client (usually a web browser) creates the digest and submits the digest password to the web server.

Storing digest passwords is so important for security purposes that the Resin authenticators default to assuming that the passwords are stored in digest form.

The important advantage is that a user's cleartext password is not as easily compromised. Since the password they use (the "cleartext" password) is not stored a malicious user cannot determine the password by gaining access to the database or other backend storage for the passwords.

MD5 digest

Resin's authenticators use "MD5-base64" and a realm "resin" to digest passwords by default. MD5 indicates that the MD5 algorithm is used. base64 is an encoding format to apply to the binary result of MD5.

Some examples are:

USERNAMEREALMPASSWORDDIGEST
rootresinchangemej/qGVP4C0T7UixSpKJpTdw==
harryresinquidditchuTOZTGaB6pooMDvqvl2Lbg==
hpotterresinquidditchx8i6aM+zOwDqqKPRO/vkxg==
filchresinmrsnorrisKmZIq2RKXAHV4BaoNHfupQ==
pinceresinquietpleaseTxpd1jQc/xwhISIqodEjfw==
snaperesinpotionI7HdZr7CTM6hZLlSd2o+CA==
mcgonagallresinquidditch4slsTREVeTo0sv5hGkZWag==
dmalfoyresinpurebloodyI2uN1l97Rv5E6mdRnDFwQ==
lmalfoyresinmyselfsj/yhtU1h4LZPw7/Uy9IVA==

In the above example the digest of "harry/quidditch" is different than the digest of "hpotter/quidditch" because even though the password is the same, the username has changed. The digest is calculated with digest(username + ":" + realm + ":" + password), so if the username changes the resulting digest is different.

Calculating a digest

Of course, storing the digest password is a bit more work. When the user registers, the application needs to compute the digest to store it.

Unix users can quickly calculate a digest:

echo -n "user:resin:password" | openssl dgst -md5 -binary | uuencode -m -

The class can be used to calculate a digest.

Calculating a digest - Java example
  import com.caucho.server.security.PasswordDigest;

  ...

  String username = ...;
  String password = ...;
  String realm = "resin";

  PasswordDigest passwordDigest = PasswordDigest();

  String digest = passwordDigest.getPasswordDigest(username, password, realm);
Calculating a digest - PHP example
  $username = ...;
  $password = ...;
  $realm = "resin";

  $passwordDigest = new Java("com.caucho.server.security.PasswordDigest");

  $digest = $passwordDigest->getPasswordDigest($username, $password, $realm);

The realm for JdbcAuthenticator and XmlAuthenticator defaults to "resin"; the realm can be specified during configuration:

Specifying a realm

<authenticator type='com.caucho.server.security.JdbcAuthenticator'>
  <init>
    <password-digest-realm>hogwarts</password-digest-realm>

    ...

Using Digest with basic authentication or a form login

When using the form login method or the HTTP basic authentication login method, the password submitted is in cleartext. The Resin authenticator will digest the password before comparing it to the value retrieved from storage. The message is transmitted in cleartext but is stored as a digest. This method provides only half of the protection - the password is not protected in transmission (although if the form submit is being done over an SSL connection it will be secure).

Using HTTP digest authentication

The HTTP protocol includes a method to indicate to the client that it should make a digest using the password. The client submits a digest to Resin instead of submitting a cleartext password. HTTP digest authentication protects the password in transmission.

When using HTTP digest, Resin will respond to the browser and ask it to calculcate a digest. The steps involved are:

  • Resin provides the client a realm and some other information
  • The client obtains a username and password (usually a dialog box with a web browser)
  • The client calculates a digest using the username, realm, pasword, and other information supplied by Resin
  • The client submits the digest to Resin
  • Resin does the same digest calculation as the client did
  • Resin compares the submitted digest and the digest it calculated. If they match, the user has been authenticated

The advantage of this method is that the cleartext password is protected in transmission, it cannot be determined from the digest that is submitted by the client to the server.

HTTP digest authentication is enabled with the auth-method child of the login-config configuration tag.

Using HTTP digest authentication
<login-config>
  <auth-method>DIGEST</auth-method>
</login-config>

Disabling the use of password-digest

Although it is not advised, Resin's authenticators can be configured to use passwords that are not in digest form.

Disabling the use of password-digest
<authenticator>
  <type>com.caucho.server.security.XmlAuthenticator</type>
  <init>
     <password-digest>none</password-digest>
     <user>harry:quidditch:user</user>
  </init>
</authenticator>

Compatibility

Authenticators are not defined by the Servlet Specification, so the ability to use passwords stored as a digest depends upon the implementation of the Authenticator that the application server provides. MD5-base64 is the most common form of digest, because it is the default in HTTP digest authentication.

The use of <auth-method>DIGEST<auth-method> is defined in the Servlet Specification and implemented in most application servers.

Single Signon

"Single signon" refers to allowing for a single login for more than one context, for example, logging in to all web-apps in a server at once. You can implement single signon by configuring the authenticator in the proper environment: web-app, host, or server. The login will last for all the web-apps in that environment.

The authenticator is a resource which is shared across its environment. For example, to configure the XML authenticator for all web-apps in foo.com, you might configure as follows:

Single Signon for foo.com
<resin xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin">
  <cluster id="app-tier>
    <http port="8080"/>

    <host id="foo.com">
      <root-directory>/opt/foo.com</root-directory>

      <authenticator type="com.caucho.server.security.XmlAuthenticator">
        <init>
          <!-- password: quidditch -->
          <user>harry:uTOZTGaB6pooMDvqvl2LBu:user,gryffindor</user>
          <!-- password: pureblood -->
          <user>dmalfoy:yI2uN1l97Rv5E6mdRnDFDB:user,slytherin</user>
        </init>
      </authenticator>

      <web-app-deploy path="webapps"/>
    </host>
  </cluster>
</resin>

Any .war in the webapps directory will share the same signon for the host. You will still need to implement a login-config for each web-app.

The value of reuse-session-id must be true for single signon.

Single signon for virtual hosts

The basis for establishing client identity is the JSESSIONID cookie. If single signon is desired for virtual hosts, Resin must be configured to notify the browser of the proper domain name for the cookie so that the same JSESSIONID cookie is submitted by the browser to each virtual host.

The authenticator is placed at the cluster level so that it is common to all virtual hosts. The cookie-domain is placed in a web-app-default at the cluster level so that it is applied as the default for all webapps in all virtual hosts.

Single Signon for gryffindor.hogwarts.com and slytherin.hogwarts.com
<resin xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin">
  <cluster id="app-tier>
    <http port="8080"/>

    <authenticator type="com.caucho.server.security.XmlAuthenticator">
      ...
    </authenticator>

    <web-app-default>
      <session-config>
        <enable-url-rewriting>false</enable-url-rewriting>
        <cookie-domain>.hogwarts.com</cookie-domain>
      </session-config>
    </web-app-default>


    <host id="gryffindor.hogwarts.com">
      ...
    </host>

    <host id="slytherin.hogwarts.com">
      ...
    </host>
  </server>
</resin>

Because of the way that browsers are restricted by the HTTP specification from submitting cookies to servers, it is not possible to have a single signon for virtual hosts that do not share some portion of their domain name. For example, "gryffindor.com" and "slytherin.com" cannot share a common authentication.

Custom Login

The Login is primarily responsible for extracting the credentials from the request (typically username and password) and passing those to the ServletAuthenticator.

The Servlet API calls the Login in two contexts: directly from ServletRequest.getUserPrincipal(), and during security checking. When called from the Servlet API, the login class can't change the response. In other words, if an application calls getUserPrincipal(), the Login class can't return a forbidden error page. When the servlet engine calls authenticate(), the login class can return an error page (or forward internally.)

Normally, Login implementations will defer the actual authentication to a ServletAuthenticator class. That way, both "basic" and "form" login can use the same JdbcAuthenticator. Some applications, like SSL client certificate login, may want to combine the Login and authentication into one class.

Login instances are configured through bean introspection. Adding a public setFoo(String foo) method will be configured with the following login-config:

<login-config type="test.CustomLogin">
  <init>
    <foo>bar</bar>
  </init>
</login-config>

Security Constraints

security-constraint

child of web-app

Selects protected areas of the web site. Sites using authentication as an optional personalization feature will typically not use any security constraints. Sites using authentication to limit access to certain sections of the website to certain users will use security constraints.

Security constraints can also be custom classes.

Protecting all pages for logged-in users
<web-app>
  ...
<security-constraint>
  <web-resource-collection>
    <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
  </web-resource-collection>
  <auth-constraint role-name='user'/>
</security-constraint>
  ...
</web-app>

web-resource-collection

child of security-constraint

Specifies a collection of areas of the web site.

url-patternurl patterns describing the resource
http-methodHTTP methods to be restricted.

auth-constraint

child of security-constraint

Requires that authenticated users fill the specified role. In Resin's JdbcAuthenticator, normal users are in the "user" role. Think of a role as a group of users.

role-nameRoles which are allowed to access the resource.
Protecting webdav for webdav users
<security-constraint>
  <auth-constraint role-name='webdav'/>

  <web-resource-collection>
    <url-pattern>/webdav/*</url-pattern>
  </web-resource-collection>
</security-constraint>

ip-constraint

child of security-constraint

Allow or deny requests based on the ip address of the client. ip-constraint is very useful for protecting administration resources to an internal network. It can also be useful for denying service to known problem ip's.

Admin pages allowed from 192.168.17.0/24
<security-constraint>
  <web-resource-collection>
    <url-pattern>/admin/*</url-pattern>
  </web-resource-collection>

  <ip-constraint>
    <allow>192.168.17.0/24</allow>
  </ip-constraint>
</security-constraint>

The /24 in the ip 192.168.17.0/24 means that the first 24 bits of the ip are matched - any ip address that begins with 192.168.17. will match. The usage of /bits is optional.

Block out known trouble makers
<security-constraint>
  <ip-constraint>
    <deny>205.11.12.3</deny>
    <deny>213.43.62.45</deny>
    <deny>123.4.45.6</deny>
    <deny>233.15.25.35</deny>
    <deny>233.14.87.12</deny>
  </ip-constraint>

  <web-resource-collection>
    <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
  </web-resource-collection>
</security-constraint>

Be careful with deny - some ISP's (like AOL) use proxies and the ip of many different users may appear to be the same ip to your server.

allowadd an ip address to allowdefault is to allow all ip addresses
denyadd an ip address to denydefault is to deny no ip addresses
error-codeerror code to send if request is denied403
error-messageerror message to send if request is deniedForbidden IP Address
cache-sizecache size, the result of applying rules for an ip is cached for subsequent requests256

If only deny is used, then all ip's are allowed if they do not match a deny. If only allow is used, then an ip is denied unless it matches an allow. If both are used, then the ip must match both an allow and a deny

user-data-constraint

child of security-constraint

Restricts access to secure transports, i.e. SSL.

transport-guaranteeRequired transport properties. NONE, INTEGRAL, and CONFIDENTIAL are allowed values.
<security-constraint>
  <user-data-constraint>
    <transport-guarantee>CONFIDENTIAL</transport-guarantee>
  </user-data-constraint>

  <web-resource-collection>
    <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
  </web-resource-collection>
</security-constraint>

The default behaviour is for Resin to rewrite any url that starts with "http:" by replacing the "http:" part with "https:", and then send redirect to the browser.

If the default rewriting of the host is not appropriate, you can set the secure-host-name for the host:

  <host id='...'>
    <secure-host-name>https://hogwarts.com</secure-host-name>

 ...
  <host id='...'>
    <secure-host-name>https://hogwarts.com:8443</secure-host-name>

  ...

transport-guarantee

Restricts access to secure transports, i.e. SSL.

constraint

child of security-constraint

Defines a custom constraint. The custom constraint specifies a resin:type which extends . Bean-style initialization is used to initialize the constraint.

...
<security-constraint>
  <constraint resin:type="example.CustomConstraint>
    <init>
      <policy>strict</policy>
    </init>
  </constraint>
  <web-resource-collection url-pattern='/*'/>
</security-constraint>
...

Custom Security Constraints

Any custom security constraint is checked after any authentication (login) but before any filters or servlets are applied. The security constraint will return true if the request is allowed and false if it's forbidden. If the request is forbidden, it's the constraint's responsibility to use response.sendError() or to return an error page.

package example;

import java.io.*;
import javax.servlet.*;
import javax.servlet.http.*;
import com.caucho.server.security.*;

public class CustomSecurity extends AbstractConstraint {
  private String foo = "false";

  public void setFoo(String foo)
  {
    this.foo = foo;
  }

  public boolean needsAuthentication()
    return false;
  }

  public boolean isAuthorized(HttpServletRequest request,
                              HttpServletResponse response,
                              ServletContext application)
    throws ServletException, IOException
  {
    if (foo.equals(request.getParameter("test")))
      return true;

    response.sendError(response.SC_FORBIDDEN);

    return false;
  }
}

The needsAuthentication method tells Resin that it needs to log in the user before checking the authorization. This would allow the custom authorizer to check user roles or the user principle for the proper permissions.

<constraint resin:type="example.CustomSecurity">
  <foo>test-value</foo>
</constraint>

Protecting static files from viewing by anyone

Sometimes it is necessary to protect files from being viewed by anyone, such as configuration files used in your code but not meant to be served to a browser.

Place files in WEB-INF

Place files in WEB-INF or a subdirectory of WEB-INF. Any files in WEB-INF or it's subdirectories will automatically be protected from viewing.

Security constraint requiring role nobody

Use a security constraint that requires a role that nobody will ever have.

security-constraint to protect static files
<web-app>
  ...
  <!-- protect all .properties files -->
  <security-constraint>
    <web-resource-collection>
      <url-pattern>*.properties</url-pattern>
    </web-resource-collection>
    <auth-constraint role-name='nobody'/>
  </security-constraint>

  <!-- protect the config/ subdirectory -->
  <security-constraint>
    <web-resource-collection>
      <url-pattern>/config/*</url-pattern>
    </web-resource-collection>
    <auth-constraint role-name='nobody'/>
  </security-constraint>
  ...
</web-app>

A servlet that returns a 403 error

Use a simple servlet that returns a 403 error, which means "Forbidden". Resin provides the servlet which is useful for this:

Using ErrorStatusServlet to protect static files
<web-app>
  ...
  <servlet>
    <servlet-name>forbidden</servlet-name>
    <servlet-class>com.caucho.servlets.ErrorStatusServlet</servlet-class>
    <init>
      <status-code>403</status-code>
    </init>
  </servlet>

  <servlet-mapping url-pattern="*.properties" servlet-name="forbidden"/>
  <servlet-mapping url-pattern="/config/*" servlet-name="forbidden"/>
  ...
</web-app>

Or you could implement your own servlet:

servlet to protect static files - WEB-INF/classes/example/servlets/Forbidden.java
package example.servlets;

import javax.servlet.*;
import javax.servlet.http.*;

import java.io.IOException;

/**
 * Respond with a 403 error
 */
public class Forbidden extends GenericServlet {
  public void service(ServletRequest request, ServletResponse response)
    throws ServletException, IOException
  {
    HttpServletResponse res = (HttpServletResponse) response;
    res.sendError(403);
  }
}

What SSL provides

SSL provides two kinds of protection, encryption and server authentication.

Encryption

public key
A set of bytes used to encrypt data and verify signatures. The key is public because it can be made available without a loss of security. The public key can only be used for encryption; it cannot decrypt anything. A public key always has a corresponding private key.

SSL provides encryption of the data traffic betweeen a client and a server. When the traffic is encrypted, an interception of that traffic will not reveal the contents because they have been encrypted - it will be unusable nonsense.

private key
A set of bytes used to decrypt data and generate signatures. The key is private because it must be kept secret or there will be a loss of security. The private key is used for decryption of data that has been encrypted with the corresponding public key.

SSL uses public key cryptography. Public key cryptography is based upon a pair of keys, the public key and the private key. The public key is used to encrypt the data. Only the corresponding private key can successfully decrypt the data.

For example, when a browser connects to Resin, Resin provides the browser a public key. The browser uses the public key to encrypt the data, and Resin uses the private key to decrypt the data. For this reason, it is important that you never allow anyone access to the private key, if the private key is obtained by someone then they can use it to decrypt the data traffic.

Encryption is arguably the more important of the security meausures that SSL provides.

Server Authentication

certificate
A combination of a private key, identity information (such as company name), and a signature generated by a signing authority. private key.

SSL also provides the ability for a client to verify the identity of a server. This is used to protect against identity theft, where for example a malicious person imitates your server or redirects client traffic to a different server while pretending to be you.

signing authority
A company that is trusted to sign certificates. Browsers include certificates of signing authorities that they trust.

Server authentication uses the signature aspect of public key cryptography. The private key is used to sign messages, and the public key is used to verify the signature. With SSL, the validity of signatures depends upon signing authorities. Signing authorites (also called certificate authorities) are companies who have generated public keys that are included with browser software. The browser knows it can trust the signing authority, and the signing authority signs your SSL certificate, putting its stamp of approval on the information in your certificate.

certificate authority
Another name for signing authority. A company that is trusted to sign certificates. Browsers include certificates of signing authorities that they trust.

For example, after you generate your public and private key, you then generate a signing request and send it to a signing authority. This signing request contains information about your identity, this identity information is confirmed by the signing authority and ultimately displayed to the user of the browser. The signing authority validates the identity information you have provided and uses their private key to sign, and then returns a certificate to you. This certificate contains the identity information and your public key, verified by the signing authority, and is provided to the browser. Since the browser has the public key of the signing authority, it can recognize the signature and know that the identity information has been provided by someone that can be trusted.

OpenSSL

OpenSSL is the same SSL implementation that Apache's mod_ssl uses. Since OpenSSL uses the same certificate as Apache, you can get signed certificates using the same method as for Apache's mod_ssl or following the OpenSSL instructions.

Linking to the OpenSSL Libraries on Unix

On Unix systems, Resin's libexec/libresinssl.so JNI library supports SSL using the OpenSSL libraries. Although the ./configure script will detect many configurations, you can specify the openssl location directly:

resin> ./configure --with-openssl=/usr/local/ssl

Obtaining the OpenSSL Libraries on Windows

On Windows systems, the resinssl.dll includes JNI code to use OpenSSL libraries (it was in resin.dll in versions before 3.0). All you need to do is to obtain an OpenSSL binary distribution and install it.

Resin on Windows is compiled against the GnuWin32 binary, you can obtain an installation package here.

Once you have run the installation package, you can copy the necessary dll libraries into $RESIN_HOME:

Copying the Windows SSL libraries into $RESIN_HOME
C:\> cd %RESIN_HOME%
C:\resin-3.0> copy "C:\Program Files\GnuWin32\bin\libssl32.dll" .\libssl32.dll
C:\resin-3.0> copy "C:\Program Files\GnuWin32\bin\libeay32.dll" .\libeay32.dll

Preparing to use OpenSSL for making keys

You can make a keys/ subdirectory of $RESIN_HOME to do your work from and as a place to store your generated keys.

$RESIN_HOME/keys
unix> cd $RESIN_HOME
unix> mkdir keys
unix> cd keys

win> cd %RESIN_HOME%
win> mkdir keys
win> cd keys

Using OpenSSL requires a configuration file. Unix users might find the default configuration file in /usr/ssl/openssl.cnf or /usr/share/ssl/openssl.cnf. Windows users may not have received one with their package.

Either way, it can be valuable to make your own openssl.cnf that is used just for generating the keys to use with Resin. You can use the following as a template for a file $RESIN_HOME/keys/openssl.cnf. You may want to fill in the _default values so you don't have to type them in every time.

$RESIN_HOME/keys/openssl.cnf
[ req ]
 default_bits            = 1024
 distinguished_name      = req_distinguished_name

[ req_distinguished_name ]
 C                      = 2 letter Country Code, for example US
 C_default              =
 ST                     = State or Province
 ST_default             =
 L                      = City
 L_default              =
 O                      = Organization Name
 O_default              =
 OU                     = Organizational Unit Name, for example 'Marketing'
 OU_default             =
 CN                     = your domain name, for example www.hogwarts.com
 CN_default             =
 emailAddress           = an email address
 emailAddress_default   =

Creating a private key

Create a private key for the server. You will be asked for a password - don't forget it! You will need this password anytime you want to do anything with this private key. But don't pick something you need to keep secret, you will need to put this password in the Resin configuration file.

creating the private key gryffindor.key
unix> openssl genrsa -des3 -out gryffindor.key 1024
win>  "C:\Program Files\GnuWin32\bin\openssl.exe" \
         genrsa -des3 -out gryffindor.key 1024

Creating a certificate

OpenSSL works by having a signed public key that corresponds to your private key. This signed public key is called a certificate. A certificate is what is sent to the browser.

You can create a self-signed certificate, or get a certificate that is signed by a certificate signer (CA).

Creating a self-signed certificate

You can create a certificate that is self-signed, which is good for testing or for saving you money. Since it is self-signed, browsers will not recognize the signature and will pop up a warning to browser users. Other than this warning, self-signed certificates work well. The browser cannot confirm that the server is who it says it is, but the data between the browser and the client is still encrypted.

creating a self-signed certificate gryffindor.crt
unix> openssl req -config ./openssl.cnf -new -key gryffindor.key \
        -x509 -out gryffindor.crt
win> "C:\Program Files\GnuWin32\bin\openssl.exe" req -config ./openssl.cnf \
         -new -key gryffindor.key -x509 -out gryffindor.crt

You will be asked to provide some information about the identity of your server, such as the name of your Organization etc. Common Name (CN) is your domain name, like: "www.gryffindor.com".

Creating a certificate request

To get a certificate that is signed by a CA, first you generate a certificate signing request (CSR).

creating a certificate request gryffindor.csr
unix> openssl req -new -config ./openssl.cnf -key gryffindor.key \
      -out gryffindor.csr
win> "C:\Program Files\GnuWin32\bin\openssl.exe" req -new \
      -config ./openssl.cnf  -key gryffindor.key -out gryffindor.csr

You will be asked to provide some information about the identity of your server, such as the name of your Organization etc. Common Name (CN) is your domain name, like: "www.gryffindor.com".

Send the CSR to a certificate signer (CA). You'll use the CA's instructions for Apache because the certificates are identical. Some commercial signers include:

You'll receive a gryffindor.crt file.

Most browsers are configured to recognize the signature of signing authorities. Since they recognize the signature, they will not pop up a warning message the way they will with self-signed certificates. The browser can confirm that the server is who it says it is, and the data between the browser and the client is encrypted.

resin.conf - Configuring Resin to use your private key and certificate

The OpenSSL configuration has two tags certificate-file and certificate-key-file. These correspond exactly to mod_ssl's SSLCertificateFile and SSLCertificateKeyFile. So you can use the same certificates (and documentation) from mod_ssl for Resin.

The full set of parameters is in the port configuration.

...
<http port="443">
  <openssl>
    <certificate-file>keys/gryffindor.crt</certificate-file>
    <certificate-key-file>keys/gryffindor.key</certificate-key-file>
    <password>my-password</password>
  </openssl>
</http>

Testing

Testing with the browser

A quick test is the following JSP.

Secure? <%= request.isSecure() %>

Using openssl to test the server

The openssl tool can be used as a client, showing some interesting information about the conversation between the client and the server:

unix$ openssl s_client -connect www.some.host:443 -prexit

Certificate Chains

A certificate chain is used when the signing authority is not an authority trusted by the browser. In this case, the signing authority uses a certificate which is in turn signed by a trusted authority, giving a chain of [your certificate] <--- signed by ---- [untrusted signer] <---- signed by ---- [trusted signer].

The Resin config parameter certificate-chain-file is used to specify a certificate chain. It is used to reference a file that is a concatenation of:

  1. your certificate file
  2. the intermediate (untrusted) certificate
  3. the root (trusted) certificate.

The certificates must be in that order, and must be in PEM format.

Example certificate chain for Instant SSL

Comodo (http://instantssl.com) is a signing authority that is untrusted by most browsers. Comodo has their certificate signed by GTECyberTrust.

Comodo gives you three certificates:

  1. your_domain.crt (signed by Comodo)
  2. ComodoSecurityServicesCA.crt (signed by GTE CyberTrust)
  3. GTECyberTrustRoot.crt (universally known root)

In addition to this, you have your key, your_domain.key. The contents of the file referred to by certificate-chain-file is a concatenation of the three certificates, in the correct order.

Creating a certificate chain file
$ cat your_domain.crt ComodoSecurityServicesCA.crt GTECyberTrustRoot.crt > chain.txt
resin.conf using a certificate chain file
<http port="443">
  <openssl>
    <certificate-key-file>keys/your_domain.key</certificate-key-file>
    <certificate-file>keys/your_domain.crt</certificate-file>        
    <certificate-chain-file>keys/chain.txt</certificate-chain-file>
    <password>test123</password>
  </openssl>
</http>

JSSE

We recommend avoiding JSSE if possible. It is slower than using Resin's OpenSSL support and does not appear to be as stable as Apache or IIS (or Netscape/Zeus) for SSL support. In addition, JSSE is far more complicated to configure. While we've never received any problems with Resin using OpenSSL, or SSL from Apache or IIS, JSSE issues are fairly frequent.

Install JSSE from Sun

This section gives a quick guide to installing a test SSL configuration using Sun's JSSE. It avoids as many complications as possible and uses Sun's keytool to create a server certificate.

Resin's SSL support is provided by Sun's JSSE. Because of export restrictions, patents, etc, you'll need to download the JSSE distribution from Sun or get a commercial JSSE implementation.

More complete JSSE installation instructions for JSSE are at http://java.sun.com/products/jsse/install.html.

  1. First download Sun's JSSE.
  2. Uncompress and extract the downloaded file.
  3. Install the JSSE jar files: jsse.jar, jnet.jar, and jcert.jar. You can either put them into the CLASSPATH or you can put them into $JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/ext. Since you will use "keytool" with the new jars, you need to make them visible to keytool. Just adding them to resin/lib is not enough.
  4. Register the JSSE provider (com.sun.net.ssl.internal.ssl.Provider). Modify $JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/security/java.security so it contains something like:
    security.provider.1=sun.security.provider.Sun
    security.provider.2=com.sun.net.ssl.internal.ssl.Provider
    
    Adding the JSSE provider allows "keytool" to create a key using the RSA algorithm.

Create a test server certificate

The server certificate is the core of SSL. It will identify your server and contain the secret key to make encryption work.

  • Sun's keytool
  • A self-signed certificate using open_ssl
  • A test certificate from Thawte
  • A production certificate from one of the certificate authorities (Verisign, Thawte, etc)

In this case, we're using Sun's keytool to generate the server certificate. Here's how:

resin1.2.b2> mkdir keys
resin1.2.b2> keytool -genkey -keyalg RSA -keystore keys/server.keystore
Enter keystore password:  changeit
What is your first and last name?
  [Unknown]:  www.caucho.com
What is the name of your organizational unit?
  [Unknown]:  Resin Engineering
What is the name of your organization?
  [Unknown]:  Caucho Technology, Inc.
What is the name of your City or Locality?
  [Unknown]:  San Francisco
What is the name of your State or Province?
  [Unknown]:  California
What is the two-letter country code for this unit?
  [Unknown]:  US
Is <CN=www.caucho.com, OU=Resin Engineering,
  O="Caucho Technology, Inc.", L=San Francisco, ST=California, C=US> correct?
  [no]:  yes

Enter key password for <mykey>
        (RETURN if same as keystore password):  changeit

Currently, the key password and the keystore password must be the same.

resin.conf

The Resin SSL configuration extends the http configuration with a few new elements.

<resin xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin">
  <server>

    <http port="8443">
     <jsse-ssl>
       <key-store-type>jks</key-store-type>
       <key-store-file>keys/server.keystore</key-store-file>
       <password>changeit</password>
     </jsse-ssl>
    </http>

    ...

  </http-server>
</caucho.com>

Testing JSSE

With the above configuration, you can test SSL with https://localhost:8443. A quick test is the following JSP.

Secure? <%= request.isSecure() %>

User Experiences with JSSE

How do I configure Resin with SSL using JSSE?

Nicholas Lehuen writes:

Here is a short step-by-step installation guide for SSL on Resin.

The purpose : to install SSL support on Resin

Requirements

  • The latest Resin 1.2 snapshot (I used the 08/04/2000 snapshot with success) http://www.caucho.com/download/index.xtp
  • JSSE 1.0.1 http://java.sun.com/products/jsse/
  • Optional : a certificate authority (CA) such as Verisign, Thawte, or your own. Thawte is providing a free test certificate authority service which enables you to check the certification process before buying your own certificate. Of course, you can also skip the CA by providing self-signed public key certificate. This will be explained later. https://www.thawte.com/cgi/server/test.exe

JSSE setup

  1. Follow the installation instructions http://java.sun.com/products/jsse/install.html
  2. Even if Resin has its own provider registration system (we'll see it on next step), I suggest that you statically register the SunJSSE by editing the <java-home>/lib/security/java.security as explained in the installation guide. This will ease the use of keytool.

Keystore initialization

  1. Create a directory named 'keys' somewhere in your Resin installation. I suggest you place it in the Resin home directory.
  2. Copy the file <java-home>/lib/security/cacerts into the 'keys' directory
  3. Rename the cacerts file as you want. I'll suppose you name it 'private.keystore'.

Keystore protection

Your private.keystore file is for the moment a copy of the cacerts keystore, which contains the CA public key certificates (very important for client HTTPS connections). We will insert your own private key in this file, thus it'll have to be password-protected, so that anyone stealing it will have difficulties in forging certificates on your behalf.

  1. Go into the 'keys' directory
  2. type the following command : keytool -storepasswd -storepass changeit -new YourPasswordHere \ -keystore private.keystore

(the default password for the cacerts keystore is 'changeit')

Private key generation

We'll now generate your key pair, which is composed of a private (the one which MUST remain secret !) and a public key. The point here is to use the RSA key pair generator, and NOT the default one, which is DSA. This is were the JSSE security provider is used.

type the following command :

M:\keys>keytool -genkey -keyalg RSA -alias myserverkeypair \
                -storepass YourPasswordHere -keystore private.keystore
What is your first and last name?
  [Unknown]:  www.myserver.com
What is the name of your organizational unit?
  [Unknown]:  Foo Dept
What is the name of your organization?
  [Unknown]:  Bar
What is the name of your City or Locality?
  [Unknown]:  Paris
What is the name of your State or Province?
  [Unknown]:  France
What is the two-letter country code for this unit?
  [Unknown]:  FR
Is <CN=www.myserver.com, OU=Foo Dept, O=Bar, L=Paris,
                ST=France, C=FR> correct?
  [no]:  yes
 
Enter key password for <myserverkeypair>
        (RETURN if same as keystore password):

You MUST mention your HTTP server name as the CN of the certificate (thus the reply to 'first and last name'). Browsers would emit warnings to your users if you didn't. Any other informations are at your choice, however the process of key pair generation and attributes definitions is very strict for "real-life" cryptography, i.e. Verisign will double-check your identity, address and so on.

Another important point : DON'T AFFECT A PASSWORD to your key pair. It must remain the same as the keystore, at least until Resin provides a means of configuring the key pair password.

Public Key Certificate (optional)

Request a public key certificate and insert the public key certificate into your keystore.

For users to trust your server, you'll have to have your public key certificate (PKC) signed by a Certificate Authority (CA) (Verisign, Thawte, Certplus...). This is done by sending a certificate signature request (CSR) to the CA, coping with all the legal stuff and getting a signed PKC in return. This step is mandatory for production server, unless you have some means to convince your users that your PKC is valid without a CA signature, which is possible in intranet environment for example. However, for testing purpose, you can start by using your self-signed PKC without any CA signature. An intermediary solution is to use a test CA so that you can check that your CSR is correctly emitted, that the Certificate Chain is correctly checked, and so on. Thawte provides a test CA at the address mentioned above.

  1. Generate a CSR by typing the following command :
    
    M:\keys>keytool -certreq -alias myserverkeypair -storepass YourPasswordHere \
                    -keystore private.keystore
    -----BEGIN NEW CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
    MIIBqjCCARMCAQAwajELMAkGA1UEBhMCRlIxDzANBgNVBAgTBkZyYW5jZTEOMAwGA1UEBxMFUGFy
    ... cut ...
    KDYZTklbg1NOiXTdXIhPHb3+YOgZ+HoeDTxOx/rRhA==
    -----END NEW CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
    
  2. Copy/Paste the CSR into the text box at the following address. Leave all options with their default value. https://www.thawte.com/cgi/server/test.exe
  3. You'll get a certificate looking like :
    -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
    MIICjzCCAfigAwIBAgIDBp8SMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBAUAMIGHMQswCQYDVQQGEwJa
    ... cut ...
    /93Q58iI4fgQ/kc+l8ogpVwh/IJw1Ujmszd19Jf+pxyySMM=
    -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    
  4. Copy/Paste this certificate into a file named 'myserver.cer' . If you have Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0 (maybe 4.0) installed, you can open this .cer file and see the certificate as your user will when they ask the security properties of pages served securely by your server. A warning should be emitted, stating that you can't trust the certificate as it does not point to a trusted root CA. You can keep going with this warning or download and trust the test root CA (available on https://www.thawte.com/servertest.crt ). Be ware though that the final user should not and surely won't accept to trust this test root CA.
  5. Anyway, to be able to import your signed certificate, you'll have to import the test root CA certificate. Download it and import it using the following command :
    M:\keys>keytool -import -alias servertest -storepass YourPasswordHere \
                    -keystore private.keystore -file servertest.crt
    Owner: CN=Thawte Test CA Root, OU=TEST, O=Thawte, ST=FOR TESTING, C=ZA
    Issuer: CN=Thawte Test CA Root, OU=TEST, O=Thawte, ST=FOR TESTING, C=ZA
    Serial number: 0
    Valid from: Thu Aug 01 02:00:00 CEST 1996 until: Thu Dec 31 22:59:59 CET 2020
    Certificate fingerprints:
             MD5:  5E:E0:0E:1D:17:B7:CA:A5:7D:36:D6:02:DF:4D:26:A4
             SHA1: 39:C6:9D:27:AF:DC:EB:47:D6:33:36:6A:B2:05:F1:47:A9:B4:DA:EA
    Trust this certificate? [no]:  yes
    Certificate was added to keystore
    
  6. Import the certificate and attach it to your server key pair by typing the command :
    M:\keys>keytool -import -alias myserverkeypair -storepass YourPasswordHere \
                    -keystore private.keystore -file myserver.cer
    Certificate reply was installed in keystore
    

Key pair verification

Issue the following command :

M:\keys>keytool -list -v -alias myserverkeypair -storepass YourPasswordHere \
                -keystore private.keystore
Alias name: myserverkeypair
Creation date: Fri Aug 11 23:07:53 CEST 2000
Entry type: keyEntry
Certificate chain length: 2
Certificate[1]:
Owner: CN=www.myserver.com, OU=Foo Dept, O=Bar, L=Paris, ST=France, C=FR
Issuer: CN=Thawte Test CA Root, OU=TEST, O=Thawte, ST=FOR TESTING, C=ZA
Serial number: 69f12
Valid from: Fri Aug 11 23:00:07 CEST 2000 until: Mon Sep 11 23:00:07 CEST 2000
Certificate fingerprints:
         MD5:  41:84:55:8C:A1:85:28:DA:B0:5A:47:D6:5B:D2:ED:41
         SHA1: 61:DE:DB:E6:7C:3C:AD:90:63:9B:20:E0:FF:3B:02:3A:60:EB:B4:82
Certificate[2]:
Owner: CN=Thawte Test CA Root, OU=TEST, O=Thawte, ST=FOR TESTING, C=ZA
Issuer: CN=Thawte Test CA Root, OU=TEST, O=Thawte, ST=FOR TESTING, C=ZA
Serial number: 0
Valid from: Thu Aug 01 02:00:00 CEST 1996 until: Thu Dec 31 22:59:59 CET 2020
Certificate fingerprints:
         MD5:  5E:E0:0E:1D:17:B7:CA:A5:7D:36:D6:02:DF:4D:26:A4
         SHA1: 39:C6:9D:27:AF:DC:EB:47:D6:33:36:6A:B2:05:F1:47:A9:B4:DA:EA

As you can see the alias myserverkeypair points to a keyEntry type entry, its certificate chain has 2 certificate, the first being your own certificate, signed by the Thawte Test CA Root, and the other being the Thawte Test CA Root own.

Resin configuration (resin.conf)

add the support for the SunJSSE security provider :

<resin xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin">
    <security-provider id='com.sun.net.ssl.internal.ssl.Provider'/>
 
<!-- declare a new HTTP server on port 443 (standard port for HTTPS),
      - with SSL enabled -->
 
<server>
  <!-- the http port -->
  <http port="80"/>

  <!-- the srun port, read by both JVM and plugin -->
  <cluster>
    <srun host='localhost' port='6802'/>
  </cluster>
 
  <http port=443>
    <jsse-ssl>
      <key-store-type>jks</key-store-type>
      <key-store-file>file://m:/keys/private.keystore</key-store-file>
      <password>YourPasswordHere</password>
    </jsse-ssl>
  </http>

Test !

Try connecting to your server with https instead of http !

I've been running successfully SSL on Resin with JDK 1.3 on Windows NT 4 SP6 and JDK 1.2.2 on Solaris 7.

And the fun begins when mixing HTTPS and WAP... !

Security Manager

In ISP environments, it's important that each user have restricted permissions to use the server. Normally, the web server will be run as a non-root user so the users can't read system files, but that user will still have read access. The use of RMI also requires a security manager.

Don't use a security manager if you're not in an ISP environment or using RMI. There's no need for it and the security manager does slow the server down somewhat.

Adding a Java security manager puts each web-app into a "sandbox" where Java limits the things that can be done from code within th web-app.

The security manager is enabled by adding a security-manager tag in the resin.conf.

enabling security-manager in resin.conf
<resin xmlns="http://caucho.com/ns/resin"
       xmlns:resin="http://caucho.com/ns/resin/core">

  <security-manager/>

  ...

java.policy

The security manager determines a policy that applies to the current virtual machine. The security manager is controlled by policy file's.

The simplest way to change the policy is to change one of the default policy file's. There are two default policy files that are used by the JDK:

${java.home}/lib/security/java.policy
${user.home}/.java.policy

An additional policy file can be set using the java.security.policy system property at the command line:

unix$ bin/httpd.sh -Djava.security.policy=file:/path/to/java.policy
win$ bin/httpd.exe -Djava.security.policy=file:/path/to/java.policy

The resulting policy for the virtual machine is the union of all granted permissions in all policy files.

java.policy syntax

A useful resource is Sun's documentation about security, in particular the policy permissions and policy file syntax files are useful.

Each web-app automatically has permissions to read, write and delete any file under the web-app's directory, including WEB-INF. It also has read permission for the classpath, including <classpath> from the <host> and <server> contexts.

sample java.policy
#
# Permissions allowed for everyone.
#
grant {
  permission java.util.PropertyPermission "*", "read";
  permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessClassInPackage.*";
  permission java.net.SocketPermission "mysql.myhost.com:3306" "connect";
  permission java.io.FilePermission "/opt/resin/xsl/*", "read";
};

#
# Give the system and Resin classes all permissions
#
grant codeBase "file:${'${'}resin.home}/lib/-" {
	permission java.security.AllPermission;
};

grant codeBase "file:${'${'}java.home}/lib/-" {
	permission java.security.AllPermission;
};

grant codeBase "file:${'${'}java.home}/jre/lib/-" {
	permission java.security.AllPermission;
};

#
# Give a specific web-app additional permissions.
#
grant codeBase "file:/opt/web/webapps/ejb/WEB-INF/-" {
	permission java.io.FilePermission "/opt/web/doc/*", "read";
};

Copyright © 1998-2012 Caucho Technology, Inc. All rights reserved. Resin ® is a registered trademark. Quercustm, and Hessiantm are trademarks of Caucho Technology.

Cloud-optimized Resin Server is a Java EE certified Java Application Server, and Web Server, and Distributed Cache Server (Memcached).
Leading companies worldwide with demand for reliability and high performance web applications including SalesForce.com, CNET, DZone and many more are powered by Resin.

home company blog wiki docs 
app server web server 
health cloud java ee pro